Publications

Forages for Horses in Iowa Cover Photo
Forages as hay or pasture make up the significant share of the daily intake of a horse. Horses are natural grass eaters with front teeth suited for biting off the grass. The molars chew and grind bulky feed, such as hay and coarse grains. A mature horse that is not working hard will eat 1.5 to 2 pounds of air-dry feed per 100 pounds of body weight. That would be 15 to 20 pounds of hay daily for a 1,000-pound horse. In Iowa, horses will require about 2 tons of hay per head per year, plus summer pasture. When meeting nutrient requirements, carefully consider forage quality and nutrient content.
Annual Vines Cover Photo
Annual vines grow quickly and bloom profusely in one growing season. They can camouflage unsightly fences or walls, accent pleasing architecture, or soften harsh structural lines—and at the same time add color, texture, and height. Vines are ideal for creating a temporary, natural screen for privacy or against sun, wind, or unattractive views. They also can create a welcoming habitat for birds, bees, and butterflies. Replaces RG 0317 - Annual Vines - Reiman Gardens
Successfully Plugging Your Abandoned Well - Safeguarding Your Water Cover Photo
Tens of thousands of old wells have been abandoned throughout Iowa, which can lead to personal injury, equipment damage, and unsafe drinking water. Read about plugging schedules, who can safely plug wells, recommended plugging materials, plugging procedures, and other information.
Geological Places to Visit - Iowa's Nature Series Cover Photo
One of the best ways to learn about and appreciate the landforms and geology of Iowa is to get outside and visit the rocks, sediments, and landscapes in person. While some of Iowa’s most interesting geological features can’t be seen at the surface, many interesting features can be explored up close in Iowa’s state and county parks, refuges, and recreation areas.
Forests - Iowa's Nature Series Cover Photo
The forests of a prairie state like Iowa are unique refugia of biological diversity and important ecological and economical function. This article explores Iowa's forest ecosystems and the critical roles they play in our environment, economy, and quality of life. The Iowa’s Nature series was a collaborative project between Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, the Iowa Association of Naturalists, and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources with support from the Resource Enhancement and Protection Program.
Landforms and Geology - Iowa's Nature Series Cover Photo
From ocean-front property to spruce forest to today's rich organic prairie soils, Iowa's geological past is a fascinating story that can be told through careful inspection of the land beneath our feet. This article explores the long-view history of Iowa's landscapes and explains how the hills and valleys we call home were formed over millennia.
Iowa Farmers and the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy: Survey Results from the Des Moines Watershed Cover Photo
This document reports a subset of results of a survey project that is focused on measuring changes in the human domain, mainly Iowa farmers’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to reduction of nutrient losses from farmland. The results presented in this document are specific to the Des Moines hydrologic unit code-6 (HUC6) watershed.
Private Pesticide Application Record Keeping form Cover Photo
Private pesticide applicators are required to keep and maintain records for all restricted use pesticides for two years. The federal regulations also require private pesticide applicators to record the below information within 14 days of the restricted use pesticide application. Use this form to fill out the required information for a restricted use pesticide application, however, there is no official form for application records. Descriptions of required items can be found on page two. Download options include Form 1 for use by a single applicator or Form 2 for multiple applicators.
Commercial Pesticide Application Record Keeping form Cover Photo
The Pesticide Act of Iowa requires commercial, public, and noncommercial pesticide applicators to maintain records of each pesticide applied for three years after the date of application. Use this form to keep your pesticide application records, however, there is no official record keeping form. Fill out all sections of this form for your records, items in the “optional” section are not required by Iowa Administrative Code. Download options include Form 1 for use by a single applicator or Form 2 for multiple applicators.
Small-Scale, Year-Round Shrimp Farming in Temperate Climates Cover Photo
The interest in indoor shrimp aquaculture as a means of producing high-quality, fresh, never-frozen marine shrimp in practically any location is growing. Indoor shrimp production allows farmers to tap into niche markets where consumers are willing to pay a higher price for top-quality, locally grown food products. This publication provides information about some specific techniques that can be used to produce shrimp indoors.
Instilling a Culture of Safety in Aquaculture Cover Photo
Agriculture and aquaculture share many common safety risks, some being specific to each sector. Aquaculture entails unique and risky chores that pose added danger, including working around water and working at night. This publication reviews some of the most common risks and ways to prevent injury or death while working in this environment.
National Pest Alert - Asian Longhorned Tick Cover Photo
A two-page handout on the invasive Asian longhorned tick that includes color photos, life cycle, basic information about potential impacts to humans and livestock.
Resource Guide for Iowa Master Gardeners Cover Photo
The official textbook of the Iowa Master Gardener training: each chapter is written by Iowa State University Extension and Outreach specialists, providing information and answers to questions about growing and tending plants.
Interpreting SCN Soil Sample Results Cover Photo
As growers and those who advise them collect soil samples from fields to test for the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and compare results from various fields and soil testing laboratories over multiple years, there are several things to consider to help interpret the soil sample results.
Benchmarking the Performance of Iowa Feedlot Cattle Cover Photo
Benchmarking is defined as a standard or point of reference against which things can be compared or assessed. Benchmarking feedlot performance is best done with the objective of monitoring performance and improvement within an operation over time.
Crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) Cover Photo
Crabgrass, sometimes called watergrass, is a warm-season annual grassy weed that is prevalent in Iowa. Crabgrass germinates in the spring once soil temperatures hit 55°F for four straight days and nights, and will die with the cooler weather and frost in the fall. Iowa has both Digitaria ischaemum (smooth crabgrass, smooth hairless stems with hairs where the stem and leaf meet) as well as Digitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass, the stems and leaves contain hairs).
Black Medic (Medicago lupulina) Cover Photo
Black medic (Medicago lupulina) is a summer-annual broadleaf weed commonly found in Iowa. Due to its similar appearance to members of the clover family (Trifolium ssp.), and yellow woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta), this weed can be easily misidentified. In Iowa, black medic is known to be problematic on both high- and low-maintenance turf and is tolerant of a wide range of mowing heights.
Turfgrass Renovation Cover Photo
There are times when lawns are damaged by heat, drought, disease, and other factors beyond one’s control to the extent that reseeding may become necessary. Situations also arise where the area was originally established to inferior species or cultivars, or where the area has become infested with perennial weeds, such as bromegrass, orchardgrass, and quackgrass that cannot be selectively controlled. If the slopes and contours on the area are satisfactory, it may be possible to reestablish the area without major tillage.
Purchasing Seed Cover Photo
When deciding which turfgrass is best for a lawn, purchasing high quality seed is important. Garden center shelves contain a wide range of seed choices. Often a mixture or a blend of turfgrass seed is available. A blend is several cultivars or varieties of the same turfgrass species, while a mixture contains two or more turfgrass species. Previously known as PM 1577
Turfgrass Biological Soil Health Cover Photo
Soil health or soil quality refers to the ability of soil to function and sustain productivity, enhance and maintain water and air quality, and support plant health. Soils provide many essential functions, such as regulating water, sustaining plant and animal life, reducing potential pollutants, cycling nutrients, and physical stability. Soil health involves physical, chemical, and biological processes and properties.
Turfgrass Calendar: Warm-Season Grasses for Lawns in Iowa Cover Photo
Warm-season grasses are best adapted to temperatures between 75 and 95°F. This calendar talks more in depth about warm season grasses and best practice to grow them.
Natural (Organic) Fertilization for Turf Cover Photo
Increased environmental concerns surrounding soluble nitrogen sources have forced many to reconsider organic fertilizers. Organic fertilizers, as well as slow-release synthetic sources, release small amounts of nitrogen over long periods. University research from across the country has concluded that when applied correctly, organic and slow-release products will reduce environmental impact.
Fewer Iowa Farms Struggling with Liquidity in 2021 Cover Photo
This article explores the evolution of financial liquidity among mid- and large-size Iowa farms in 2020 against a backdrop of growing net farm income. Some indicators point to a smaller share of farms with increasing needs for short-term financing with respect to 2020, and multiple indicators suggest an expanding share of farms with strengthened liquidity positions. Multi-year trends suggest that overall farm liquidity has improved in 2020, but the improvement could not offset the slow but persistent erosion of liquidity observed since 2014.
Two revenue insurance products are available to help cattle livestock producers manage risk: livestock gross margin and livestock risk protection. Both are described and examples are provided.
Livestock Risk Insurance Plans for Cattle Producers Cover Photo
Two revenue insurance products are available to help cattle livestock producers manage risk: livestock gross margin and livestock risk protection. Both are described and examples are provided.
Current Crop Insurance Policies Cover Photo
Detailed comparisons of crop insurance plans are provided.
Cash Rental Rates for Iowa 2021 Survey Cover Photo
Typical cash rental rates for high, medium, and low quality cropland, as well as land devoted to hay production, oats, pasture, and cornstalk grazing. This information can be useful in comparing rental rates among counties and farms of different levels of productivity.
Farm Financial Statements Cover Photo
The financial position and performance of a farm business can be summarized by four financial statements. Find out more about a net worth statement, net income statement, statement of cash flows, and statement of owner equity. Sample forms included.
Your Farm Income Statement Cover Photo
Income figures from your tax return may not accurately measure the economic performance of your farm. Learn more about the information needed to prepare an income statement. See a sample net farm income statement, statement of cash flows, and statement of owner equity.
Livestock Enterprise Budgets for Iowa - 2021 Cover Photo
This publication contains estimates of production costs for common livestock enterprises in Iowa. Estimates are intended to reflect average or above-average levels of management using common types of technology. Input prices reflect expected average price levels during the year.
Computing a Cropland Cash Rental Rate Cover Photo
This publication guides owners and renters through the process of computing a cash rental rate for farmland.
Your Net Worth Statement Cover Photo
Learn how to write and analyze your farm's net worth statement.
2020 Iowa Farm Costs and Returns Cover Photo
Provides detailed costs and returns to well-managed, full-time Iowa farms. The values presented are averages. Topics covered include assets and liabilities, income and expenses, efficiency factors, crop and livestock production, and more.
Iowa Farmland Rental Rates, 1994-2021 Cover Photo
Iowa Farmland Rental Rates, 1994-2021, provides an update of cropland rental rates in Iowa. Cropland rental rates released by the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service averaged $233 per acre in 2021, a 1.3% increase from 2020. Cash rent for pasture was 7.4% higher at $58 per acre. Rent as a percentage of land value remained steady to slightly lower at 3.0% for cropland and 1.9% for pasture. Prepared from data collected from the USDA National Agriculture Statistic Service.
Flexible Farm Lease Agreements Cover Photo
This publication provides information needed to develop flexible farm lease agreements, where the actual rent is not determined until after the crop is harvested. Included is a flexible lease agreement worksheet and multiple examples.
2021 Iowa Farm Custom Rate Survey Cover Photo
Many Iowa farmers hire some custom machine work in their farm business or perform custom work for others. The 2021 Iowa Farm Custom Rate Survey is intended as a guide in determining custom rates. This information is based on 118 responses and 3,785 custom rates provided by Iowa farmers, custom operators, and farm managers.
Improving Your Farm Lease Contract Cover Photo
This publication provides information to use when creating a farm lease contract. Sections include:Reasons for farm leases Common types of leases used in Iowa and their main characteristics Potential advantages and disadvantages of different types of leases Key areas of decision making Factors that influence leasing terms Economic and legal considerations Communication Termination of a farm lease
Soybean cyst nematode-resistant soybean varieties for Iowa Cover Photo
Details on selecting and managing soybean cyst nematode-resistant varieties.
Iowa Wine Brochure Cover Photo
Because of the climate, harsh cold winters and hot humid summers, only specific grape varieties can survive and be used for wine production in Iowa. Those varieties are native American and French-American varieties that have been bred to obtain interspecific cold-hardy grape varieties used in Iowa.
Iowa Farmers and the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy: Survey Results from the Upper Mississippi-Skunk-Wapsipinicon Watershed Cover Photo
This document reports a subset of results of a survey project that is focused on measuring changes in the human domain, mainly Iowa farmers’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to reduction of nutrient losses from farmland. The results presented in this document are specific to the Des Moines hydrologic unit code-6 (HUC6) watershed.
Impact of COVID-19 in Iowa's Small Towns Cover Photo
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted the health, economic, and emotional welfare of rural Iowa. This report summarizes key statewide impacts and perceptions of COVID-19 from survey data collected between December 2020-February 2021 from 13,679 households across 73 small towns in Iowa, including two micropolitans.
Iowa Farmers and the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy: Survey Results from the Missouri-Nishnabotna Watershed Cover Photo
This document reports a subset of results of a survey project that is focused on measuring changes in the human domain, mainly Iowa farmers’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to reduction of nutrient losses from farmland. The results presented in this document are specific to the Des Moines hydrologic unit code-6 (HUC6) watershed.
Kuongeza UP: Zana ya Kusidika Mazao Maalum cover Photo
Haya ni maelezo ya kijumla ya kukufunza vifaa vitakavyo kuwezesha kuongeza mazao Ya mimea maalumu ya biashara ya vyakula. Ina haja ya kutengeneza mimea maalumu kwa kuongeza thamani. Ni juu ya sababu zifuatazo: Maendeleo ya bidhaa, kuongeza ukubwa na kadhalika. Lengo la mradi huu inahusu wafanya biashara kushirikiana katika bishara ya mitaa. Biashara ya kusambaza bidhaa kufuatana na haja kubwa walizonazo.
Ampliación: Juego de Herramientas para el Procesamiento de Cultivo Especializado Cover Photo
El juego de herramientas para el procesamiento del cultivo especializado a escala, provee una visión general del criterio para los negocios de alimentos interesados en el procesamiento del cultivo especializado, mediante las oportunidades del procedimiento del valor agregado, así como el desarrollo del producto, cocinas comerciales, ampliación a escala, etc. El proyecto se enfoca en negocios de propietarios locales y colaboró intencionalmente con negocios locales dentro de la cadena de suministros, para determinar necesidades críticas.
Scaling Up Specialty Crop Processing Toolkit Cover Photo
The Scaling Up Specialty Crop Processing Toolkit provides an overview of criteria for food businesses interested in processing specialty crops through value-added processing opportunities such as product development, commercial kitchens, increasing scales, and more. The project focuses on locally owned businesses and intentionally collaborated with local businesses within the supply chain to determine critical needs.
Opciones de manejo del barrenador verde esmeralda Cover Photo
Dueños de propiedades y los aplicadores de pesticidas comerciales encontrarán medidas de control a considerar para prevenir y tratar la infestación de fresnos por el barrenador verde esmeralda. Incluye recomendaciones de productos y evaluación de eficacia de los insecticidas. Spanish version of Emerald Ash Borer Management Options. Previously known as PM 2084(S).
2020 Iowa Dairy Producer Survey Cover Photo
In 2020, the Center for Survey Statistics and Methodology–Survey Research Services (CSSMSRS) at Iowa State University was contracted to conduct an online/mail survey with dairy farmers in Iowa to learn about their current operations, needs, and expectations for the future.
Managing Farm Stress and Distress Cover Photo
This publication is dedicated to the many dairy and other farmers who have felt farm stress beyond their comfort zone and for the many others who might benefit with more attention paid to their and their family’s mental health for both farm and family well-being.
Category 7B, Termite Control -- Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual Cover Photo
This manual has been developed for individuals who want to become certified in the commercial and public pesticide applicator Category 7B – Termite Control.This category manual supplements information in the Iowa Core Manual, CS 0445, and should not be used for certification preparation without referring to that manual. The newly revised Category 7B Termite Control Manual, CS20, covers termite biology, inspection, prevention, and control. This manual also provides information on carpenter ants and other wood-destroying organisms.
Category 1E, Animal Pest Control -- Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual Cover Photo
This manual is for individuals planning to become certified in commercial pesticide applicator Category 1E, Animal Pest Control. This category manual supplements information in the Iowa Core Manual, CS 0445, and should not be used for certification preparation without referring to that manual.

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