#243 - May 29, 2013


Top 10 Questions About Herbicide Drift into Vineyards

herbaside driftThe herbicide drift season is upon us. The calls and e-mails have started to come in. Some are self- induced by people who just couldn’t live with those dandelions growing near their vineyard or nearby private and commercial applicators trying to get a spray application in between rains The majority of the applications always seem to involve either 2,4-D, dicamba or glyphosate (Roundup) in the mix.
These are the most typical questions I often get asked:
1. Question: I think I have herbicide drift on my grapes. How can I tell?
Answer: Take some high resolution pictures (that are not blurred) and e-mail them to me or contact a local agronomist or horticulturalist to stop by and take a look.
2. Question: How much are the grapes damaged?
Answer: Time will tell. Slight leaf disorientation and/or discoloration probably just gave the vines a serious headache and they should recover. Moderate to severe leaf and/or shoot symptoms probably has caused some serious injury or set up the plant for a higher potential of winter injury. Herbicide drift typically creates the most yield damage when it occurs during bloom or early fruit set. The true extent of the damage will not be known until the grape plant completely recovers or dies in 1-3 years. In most cases, looking at the hanging grape crop the next season will give a good indication of the extent of the damage. Older plants typically will recover much quicker than younger plants.
3. Question: How can I determine where the herbicide drift came from?
Answer: I can’t recall ever being on a herbicide drift case where I could not find the source of the drift. The vineyard area showing the worst damage symptoms should give you an indication of the direction the drift came in from. Herbicide drift will typically affect other plants along its journey. Like Dorothy in Kansas, just Follow the Yellow Brick Road.
4. Question: How do I go about getting compensated for the damage?
Answer: Start a written diary with documented dates, pictures and yields. You need to decide if you are willing to settle the situation with a neighbor in an informal manner OR start building your case in a formal manner. I normally recommend going the formal route. Vineyard damage is costly and the extent of the damage cannot be fully documented for 1-2 seasons. People forget, minds change and people you are dealing with come and go over time.
5. Question: Who do I contact?
Answer: In Iowa, I recommend people contact the Pesticide Bureau of the Iowa Department of Agriculture (515-281-8591). They have field personnel who investigate pesticide drift cases. They will interview the parties involved, take pictures and take plant samples for chemical analysis. There is no charge for this service. Results from their investigation can be used out-of- court or in court for settlement. The perpetrator of the drift will often get a written reprimand and /or a fine and may lose their pesticide applicator’s license depending on the applicator’s pesticide misuse history or blatant pesticide misuse in this case.
Note: Most Departments of Agriculture in other states also have personnel who investigate pesticide drift cases. Many require that the drift case be reported within 30 days of the application. The sooner the better!
6. Question: The insurance company guy wants to settle-up now. Should I settle now?
Answer: No, unless the settlement seems VERY high. This is a common game played by insurance adjusters. It costs them more to service a claim for 1-2 years and their liability tends to grow over time. They want to get the settlement check out ASAP.
7. Question: How do I determine the value of the damage?
Answer: Direct loss in yield, replacement vine cost, punitive restitution (if applicable) and the hassle factor which involves the time, labor and mental anquish involved with dealing with the situation should all be considered for compensation.
8. Question: What kind of compensation can one expect?
Answer: It is common for insurance companies to ask for an "Agreement of Confidentiality" to be signed by the party(s) receiving damage compensation. There are times I become privy to this information via follow up correspondence. Based on this hearsay information, I have found that out –of- court insurance settlements of $25 to $75 and in-court settlements of $50 to $100 per vine to not be uncommon.
9. Question: Can the ISU Extension grape guy be my personal pesticide drift consultant and expert witness when I deal with the insurance adjustor or court case?
Answer: No. ISU Extension can provide information, recommendations and expert referrals. We can also provide initial on-site consultation if travel and labor costs are compensated. We will not be available to testify in court. It is best to use a private industry professional to represent you when seeking compensation for damages.
10. Question: What should I do with the vines?
Answer: All, or a proportion of the fruit should be pulled from moderate to heavily damaged vines. This is somewhat a seat-of-your pants determination based on the physical symptoms and type of herbicide causing the damage. Over-cropping a herbicide damaged vine will cause more stress and a longer period of recovery. Use your normal good vineyard growing practices that you are accustomed to using for the rest of the season. Fungicide applications designed to protect the fruit should not be needed if the fruit has been removed.
Summary: Herbicide drift into vineyards happens and needs to be dealt with. I recommend that professional commercial growers handle a drift case in a professional manner. Document everything and report the drift case to your State Department of Agriculture for investigation. Handling a pesticide drift situation in a formal manner sends a strong message out within the local community that will reduce the potential of future herbicide drift problems. mlw
More information about the how, what and whys of herbicide drift onto vineyards and a large list or drift informational resources can be found at the Northern Grape Project 11-3-12 "Herbicide Drift Webinar" WWW site here: http://northerngrapesproject.org/?page_id=428

Pre-Bloom through Bloom – Critical Disease Control Period

Critical Disease Control PeriodMost of our Iowa vineyards will be entering the blooming stage of development very soon. We are entering the most critical period for controlling Black Rot, Downy Mildew, Powdery Mildew, Phomopsis and Botrytis. High humidity and frequent rainfall only increases the potential of these diseases. Rapid new unprotected growth emerging during rainy periods requires timely fungicide applications for disease protection.
Protectant fungicides like Mancozeb, Ziram, sulfur, Captan and copper compounds do not last long under frequent rainfall periods. Locally systemic fungicides that enter the plant within hours, provide a longer period of protection and some post curative effectiveness should be considered during prolonged wet periods.
The Strobilurin class (Group 11) of fungicides (Abound, Flint, Sovran, Pristine) and the Sterol Inhibitor class (Group 3)(Elite, Mettle, Procure, Rally, Rubigan, Vintage) would fall in this category. Quadris Top and Adament include active ingredients from both of these classes. Resistance management is very important when using either of these two classes of fungicides. An additional fungicide mix partner or alternating product application for Downy Mildew control should be included when using a Strobilurin and an additional fungicide mix partner or alternating product application should be used to double up on Powdery Mildew when using a Sterol Inhibitor.
I just heard from our State Climatologist this morning (5-29-13) that our total rainfall for Iowa has reached 16+ inches for the year, A NEW ALL TIME RECORD. With rainfall comes increased disease pressure. It is critical to NOT cheat on materials, rates, spray intervals or coverage.
Always remember to read, understand and follow all label directions. Here are a few resources to provide additional information in setting up your fungicide spray program:
1. 2013 Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide: https://store.extension.iastate.edu/ItemDetail.aspx?ProductID=4796
3. Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) fungicide mode of action list: http://www.frac.info/publication/anhang/FRAC%20Code%20List%202013-update%20April-2013.pdf

Phylloxera – timing is key for control

Grape phylloxera,Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch), is a tiny insect that forms galls on leaf undersides and roots of grapevines. The root galls are deadly to Vitis vinifera  grapes and require that vinifera grape plants be grafted onto American rootstocks to survive.
Phylloxera galls
(Left) Phylloxera galls on grape leaf.
The foliar form of phylloxera creates the leaf galls we start to see early in the summer here in the Midwest. Some cultivars are more sensitive than others. The worst foliar symptoms typically occur at vineyard edges, shady areas or stunted vines growing on poor sites. The occasional crinkled leaf with galls present does not warrant an insecticide treatment. Heavy infestations that begin early in the season can cause economic yield losses. Infestations showing up in the middle of the season typically are not a problem. There are no well defined economic treatment thresholds that have been established for foliar phylloxera.
Insecticide labels are not very specific as when to apply and if a second application would be needed. I would suggest applying one application around bloom and another one 10-14 days later if more galls are detected on the new growth. Further info on phylloxera can be found in "Grape Phylloxera Management" Wine Grower News 16, 5-20-11 found here:http://www.extension.iastate.edu/wine/growersnews/167-may-20-2011
FREE Midwest Wide CLASSIFIEDS for vineyards and wineries at Midwest Wine Press here:

Petiole Test for Boron & Nitrogen Best Done at Bloom

Petiole tests are the primary tool used to determine fertility needs once a vineyard is established. Soil testing determines the amount of nutrients in the soil. Comparing soil tests and petiole tests over time will begin to show trend lines and strengthen the value of each.
Petiole testing for boron and nitrogen is best done at bloom. Petiole tests for the other nutrients are best done around veraison. Further details on petiole testing can be found here in " Petiole Test for Boron & Nitrogen is Best Done at Full Bloom", 5-18-12 – Wine Grower News: http://www.extension.iastate.edu/wine/growersnews/200-may-18-2012#Petiole

6-1 – Swine Fest – DMACC, Ankeny, IA

SWine fest
The 7th annual Swine Fest will be held from 4-8 p.m. on Saturday, June 1st . Early purchase tickets are $35 and $40 for tickets purchased the day of the event.
Two of Iowa’s best tastes come together in a casual, yet refined event designed to benefit the viticulture and enology program at Des Moines Area Community College.
This year’s event will feature central Iowa’s finest chefs and wines from 15 Iowa wineries. Chefs will prepare samples of gourmet pork offerings while wineries will pour samples and offer wine for sale.

6-(1-8), Wine Fest Des Moines – Iowa’s Biggest

Winefest 2013Wine Fest Des Moines, a full week of wine tasting and education.
Iowa wine, beer, cuisine and music will be featured from 2-5pm on Sunday, June 2nd at the Ramsey Subaru Lawn Party which is a part of Wine Fest.
Free Run: the juice that appears after crushing, but before pressing. It is the highest quality juice for wine making.

2013 Intl. Cold Climate Wine Competition

2013 International Cold Climate Wine CompetitionOpen to: Commercial wineries only, 31 different categories
Cost: $40 per entry
Online Registration: Starts Friday, May 17, and closes at 11:00 p.m. CST on Thursday, August 1. Pre-registered entries must arrive by 4:30 p.m. on Monday, August 5.
Competition to be held August 16, 2013
Sponsored by: University of Minnesota & the Minnesota Grape Growers Association (MGGA)

6-4, MO Grape Growers Association Annual Meeting & Field Day

When: 9 a.m to 3:30 p.m. Tuesday, 6-4-12, 8-9 a.m. Registration
Where: at the Rosati Winery Museum, 22050 State Route K, St. James, MO
Cost: $15 each for MGGA members, $20 each for non-members

IL State Fair Amateur Wine Competition Open to Midwestern States

2013 Illinois State Fair Wine CompetitionEntry Deadline: 6-11-13
Judging: 6-(17-19)-13 at Lincoln Land Community College – Springfield, MO
Cost: $15 per entry.
Open to: all Midwestern amateur wine makers.

6-14, Getting Ready for Harvest, Columbia, MO

When: 10 a.m. to Noon, Friday, June 14th
Where: Room 107 Ag Engineering (click for map) University of Missouri – Columbia
Who: José Santosfor, Enartis Vinquiry’s President
Seminar topics will address:
- Acid corrections during harvest: managing high pH and high TA in juice
- Improve tannin and color extraction
- Green character management
- Achieving stability and sensory balance from harvest
There is no charge for attending the seminar but an RSVP is requested. If you'd like to attend, please RSVP by email or call the Institute at (573) 882-6656 and let us know you'll be joining us.

7th Annual Mid-American Wine Competition

Mid-American Wine Competition
Entry Deadline: June 28, 2013
Competition Dates: July 12, 13, 14, 2013
Cost: $25.00 Food/Wine Pairing Competition per entry
$40.00 Traditional Competition per entry
You may also be interested in knowing about the Food/Wine Pairing portion of the MAWC that was featured last year in the Iowa Ingredient television series from Iowa Public TV. You can check out the 4:13 min. video here: http://www.midamericanwine.org/Pages/videos.aspx

7-1 Deadline – Iowa State Fair Commercial & Amateur Wine Competition

Iowa State FairJuly 1st is the early entry deadline for the Iowa State Fair amateur and commercial wine competition. Late entries can be made from July 2nd to 8th for twice the regular entry fee. Amateur fees are $5 / $10 and the
commercial fees are $25 / $50. Amateur entries need to be delivered to the Iowa State Fairgrounds on Saturday, July 22nd. The commercial entries need to the Iowa State Fairgrounds from July 15th -19th. Both competitions are open to only Iowa winemakers.

6-(9-14), 1st International Elderberry Symposium - MO

When: 6-(9-12), Sun. – Wed. Scientific Presentations
6-(13-14) Thurs.-Fri. Producer Program
Where: Scientific presentations will be head at
Stoney Creek Inn, 2601 S. Providence Rd
Columbia, MO 65203 ph: 573-442-6400
Producer Program will be held at Eridu Farms
19010 S. Mackie Lane, Hartsburg, MO 65039 ph: 573-657-1177
Questions: Andrew Thomas, Email: thomasal@missouri.edu ; Phone: 417-466-0065
Need at ride?
I will be attending the Producer Forum. Leaving Indianola, IA on the afternoon of 6-12 and arriving back the evening of 6-14. Mike White: 515-681-7286
Hard: A wine that is tannic, particularly one that is so tannic that it is out of balance. This is a function of youth for some wines, and these wines will "soften" with age.

Marketing Tidbits

1. Organic, biodynamic wines on the rise in American wine shops, 5-22-13 – Central Jersey.com:
2. Six Free or Low-Cost Online Activities to Increase Tasting Room Traffic, 5-27-13 – American Winery Guide:
3. 5 Steps to Nail Every Media Interview, 5-28-13 – The Buzz Bin:

Notable Quotables

"Success is getting what you want. Happiness is wanting what you get."
… Dale Carnegie
"A bottle of wine contains more philosophy than all the books in the world."
… Louis Pasteur"

Neeto-Keeno WWW Stuff

1. The Drip-Micro Irrigation Payback Wizard. The Drip Micro Payback Wizard was developed by the Irrigation Association’s Drip-Micro Common Interest Group to help growers calculate how long it will take to recover the costs of investing in a drip-micro irrigation system.
2. Everything You Wanted to Know About Brown Marmorated Stink Bug can be found here: http://www.stopbmsb.org/

Show n Tell

Basal budsPhomopsis lesions
(Above, Left) Basal buds starting to emerge on Norton / Cynthiana. 5-29-13
(Above, Right) Phomopsis lesions on the shoot of Norton / Cynthiana. 5-29-13
Flowers of wild grape
(Left) Flowers of wild grape (Vitis riparia), aka Riverbank grape. Unlike other table and wine grapes, wild grapes are either male or female (dioecious). Only the females produce fruit and they need pollen from male plants to do so.
 70 ft. long wild single grape vine
(Right) 70 ft. long wild single grape vine on Hwy 92 fence line east of Indianola, Iowa. It was in full bloom with an average over 20 clusters per foot of vine. There was a very strong floral scent along this vine. 5-29-13

Videos of Interest

1. Latest Information on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug – Growing Produce / Valent, 4:40
2. Air Layering a Grape Vine, 7-7-09 – James Sprunt Community College. 4:34 min.:
3. Successful Tasting Room Metrics, 5-27-13 – SVB on Wine. 58:43 min.:
4. a geeky review of wine glasses, 5-26-13 – jgoode’s wine blog:

Articles of Interest

1. VinoEnology Offers Free Job Posting Services for the Wine Industry, 4-12-13 – VineEnology: http://vinoenology.com/wine-news/read/6517/
2. WI: Wisconsin's state wine excise tax is near the bottom, 5-22-13 – JSOnline: http://www.jsonline.com/blogs/lifestyle/208559071.html
3. Appellation America to remove pay wall and provide free access (Press Release), 5-23-13 – Wine Business Monthly: http://www.winebusiness.com/news/?go=getArticle&dataid=116981
4. Creating a Non-Alcoholic Wine by Osmotic Distillation: Are Quality Characteristics Retained During the Alcohol Removal Process? 5-29-13 – the academic wino: http://www.academicwino.com/2013/05/non-alcoholic-wine-osmotic-distillation.html/
5. Nutrition labels coming to wine – finally, 5-30-13 – the wine curmudgeon: http://www.winecurmudgeon.com/my_weblog/2013/05/nutrition-labels-coming-to-wine-finally.html

Calendar of Events

6-1, Swine Festival on the DMACC campus, Ankeny, IA http://swinefestival.com/
6-4, Missouri Grape Growers Association viticulture field day. Details later here: http://www.missourigrapegrowers.org/
6-(1-8), Des Moines Wine Fest: http://www.winefestdesmoines.com/
6-(9-14), First International Elderberry Symposium at Columbia, MO. Details here: http://muconf.missouri.edu/elderberrysymposium/
6-11, Wine Microbiology Workshop, ISU Midwest Grape & Wine Industry Institute – Ames, IA Kenneth C. Fugelsang, Professor Emeritus – California State University, Fresno. http://www.extension.iastate.edu/wine/upcomingevents
6-(24-28), 64th American Society of Enology & Viticulture (ASEV) National Conference, Portola Hotel & Monterey Conference Center – Monterey, CA: http://asev.org/national-conference-2013/
6-28, Deadline to enter Mid-American Wine Competition to be held July 12 – 14th: http://www.midamericanwine.org
7-(1-8), Deadline for Iowa State Fair Amateur / Commercial Wine competition. 7-1 deadline is $5 / $25 and 7-(2-8) deadline is $10/$50 per entry. Two bottles per entry. In-state only. http://www.iowastatefair.org/competition/categories/
7-13, ISU Extension Northern Grape Project Vineyard Field Day – Adel & Madrid, Iowa. Details later.
7-28, Minnesota Grape Growers Association Annual Picnic – Four Daughters Vineyard & Winery at Spring Valley, MN. http://mngrapegrowers.com/
7-31 to 8-2, 37th Society of Wine Educators Annual Conference, Renaissance Hotel at Sea World in Orlando, FL: http://www.societyofwineeducators.org/conference
8-12, 2 -7:30 p.m. Fruit and Vegetable Field Day, Horticulture Research Station - Ames. Sponsored in part by PFI and IFVGA. Registration is now open here:
8-16, 5th Annual International Cold Climate Wine Competition Details here: http://mngrapegrowers.com/competition
8-(8-18), Iowa State Fair Wine Experience Exhibit. Volunteer announcement will be sent out in July. http://www.iowastatefair.org/
1-(23 & 24), Iowa Fruit & Vegetable Growers Assn. annual conference – Ankeny, IA. Details later here: http://www.ifvga.org/
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Michael L. White - CCA, CPAg, CSW
ISU Extension Viticulture Specialist
909 East 2nd Ave. Suite E, Indianola, IA 50125-2892
ph: 515-961-6237, fax: 6017, cell: 515-681-7286
link to FaceBookLink to Twitter
U.S Drought Monitor, May 28 2013
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