#239 - May 1, 2013


Early Season Grape Disease Management Webinar Now Online

Buds are swelling and leaves will be developing soon. Dr. Annemiek Schilder, a plant pathologist at Michigan State University, presented a webinar on April 17, 2013, on Early-Season Disease Management which has been posted on the WWW here:
This 1 hour webinar provides a good review and update for setting up an integrated approach to grape disease management and covers both the old and new fungicide products that are available.
I highly recommend you view this 1 hour webinar prior to starting your fungicide spray season. mlw

Think Before Using Nitrogen (N) in Your Vineyard

Not enough nitrogen (N) in your vineyard and you can get poor shoot growth, light green colored vegetation, and lower yields. N deficiency can also cause low levels of yeast-assimilable nitrogen (YAN) in harvested fruit and must, leading to a slow or stuck fermentation. Too much nitrogen can create an overly vigorous dark green canopy, large dinner plate leaves, bull canes, long internodes between leaves, poor pollination and the inability of the plant to harden off completely in the fall resulting in more winter cold damage. Finding your proper N balance is not that easy. Every vineyard site in Iowa can be different.
Iowa vineyards cannot readily jump onto N recommendations coming from other parts of the country. Why? Iowa has the highest level of organic matter soils in the U.S. A typical vineyard soil in Iowa will run in the 3-5% organic matter range, some higher and some lower. Midwest agronomists typically use a rule of thumb that 20 pounds on N per acre will be slowly released each year for each 1% of organic matter in the soil. This can range from 10-30 lbs depending on the climate during the season. The higher the rainfall, the higher the N release in the soil.
The following soil organic matter map of the U.S should readily point out to you why Iowa is different. The darker the color the higher the organic matter percentage in the soil horizon. (Note – Iowa is that big black spot in the middle!)
U of M organic matter map
There is often a misconception that grapes draw a lot of fertilizer out of the soil and that annual applications or N-P-K are needed to maintain a crop. This is not correct. This table derived from the International Fertilizer Association (IFA) 1992 Fertilizer Use Manual shows the pounds of nutrients that a typical 4 ton/acre grape crop would remove from the soil:
Crop      Tons/Ac.    N    P2O5    K2O    Ca    Mg    B         Cu      Zn         Fe___
Grapes      4          27.2   11.2      48    47.2   4.8  0.012   0.02  0.036   0.08 lbs./acre
According to this manual, "Stems and leaves, which are re-incorporated in the soil account for about 70% of the N uptake and 60% of the P2O5 and K2O, so the net removal in the harvest would be much smaller. Based on this estimate of nutrient recycling, the net removal of the macronutrients N, P205, and K20 would be approximately:
Crop    Tons/Acre    N    P2O5    K2O
Grapes        4           8        4.4      19.2 lbs./acre
A good soil sampling program taken prior to planting the grapes and then repeated every 3-4 years thereafter should be sufficient to monitor and correct soil fertility deficiencies over time. Soil sampling for N does not work well. Nitrogen is a mobile nutrient in the soil and determining how much is available to the crop at any moment in time is not possible with one sampling every 3-4 years. So what do we do?
Here are the three major methods used to determining N needs in a vineyard:
1. Soil sampling prior to establishing the vineyard and determining organic matter % of the soil will give an indication of how many pounds of N may be made available to the crop each year. Using the rule of thumb of 20 lbs. of N for each % of organic matter would be a good start.
2. Visually monitor the vineyard for leaf color and canopy growth to gain a qualitative idea of the N status of the crop. The true picture of the N balance of this will probably not be seen until the vineyard begins to bear a crop. Pruning weights in the range of 0.3 to 0.4 lbs per foot of cordon is one indicator of proper nitrogen availability and proper yields. How you balance the crop load via your pruning methods will also have a large affect on the N needs of the crop.
3. A petiole analysis done at bloom will probably give the best indication of the N status of the crop. Charts indicating the optimum % total N needed during bloom vary slightly, but anything in the 1.2 to 2.8% range should be sufficient. These petiole samples will give a better picture of your N status from a producing versus a non-producing vineyard.
Let us say that it looks like you may need to apply some N fertilizer to your winegrape vineyard, but you really do not know how much. I would suggest starting out with 20-30 lbs of N per acre in vineyards with moderate yields of 2-4 tons/acre and move up to a maximum of 30-50 lbs of N per acre in vineyards with yields above 4 tons/acre. The best time to apply this N would probably be during the last half of May here in Iowa with an option of splitting the application of a heavier rate to another split application made during mid-June. Applying N later in the season, especially after veraison has the potential of enhancing late season growth and reducing the ability of the grapes to harden off prior to winter. Try to spread the fertilizer evenly under the trellis wire where most of the grape root mass is located. Applying just before a rainfall will also increase the availability of the N you apply.
Most N forms can be used equally well in vineyards. The choice depends largely on the cost per pound of N. Ammonium sulfate (21% N, 24% sulfur) should be considered on high pH (7.0+) soils because its higher soil acidifying affect when compared to other N sources.
The narrower the weed free area is under the trellis wire the more competition for N will come from the vineyard grassed aisles. . Many of our vineyard aisles are composed of a mix of turf grass and Dutch white clover. Dutch white clover is a nitrogen fixing legume. A good mix of Dutch white clover growing in the grass aisles could easily provide an additional 30 to 50 lbs. of slow release N per acre per year to a vineyard.
Of special note, Wood Chips: I have heard from several vineyard owners over the past few years who use wood chips as a mulch that their petiole sampling results for N are typically low. This is probably due to the wood decaying microbes tying up soil N as they work to decompose the wood chips. Wood decaying microbes require approximately 1 lb. of nitrogen to decompose 25-50 lbs. of carbon. The carbon / nitrogen ratio of wood chips is approximately 400 / 1. Wood chips can tie up a lot of nitrogen while they decay. The take home message here is that vineyards with wood chip mulch should NEVER incorporate wood chips into the soil and to monitor their N status closely. Additional N should not be applied on top of the wood much. Side dressing the N along the row edge would be an option to consider.
Controlling excess vigor due to too much water and/or too much N is a common problem seen in many of our Iowa vineyards. Narrowing the weed free area under the trellis wire, allowing the vegetation in the vineyard aisles to grow taller, allowing late season weeds to establish themselves in the vine row or planting a cover crop under the trellis wire are some of the ways one can use to reduce the amount of excess water and N available to the grapes.
Determining the EXACT N needs of your vineyard will probably not happen. Hopefully though, you can get close. Reviewing the following documents will provide a greater insight into this topic:
1. Fertilization Chapter (pp. 137-143) of the Midwest Grape Production Guide:
2. Fertilizer Practices for Bearing Vineyards, Dr. Paul Domoto, ISU Extension:
3. Nutrition Management chapter (pp. 39-50) of Vine Balance, Cornell University:
4. Nitrogen Nutrition, Dr. Tony Wolf, VA Tech, Vineyard Notes, Vol 24, No. 1 March – April,
5. Collecting Leaves or Petioles for Tissue Analysis of Fruit Crops, ISU Extension:
6. Spectrum Analytic Inc – Fertilizing Grapes
FREE Midwest Wide CLASSIFIEDS for vineyards and wineries at Midwest Wine Press here:

Organic Farming Proceedings Published in Crop Management Journal

USDA Organic Conference ProceedingsThe proceedings of ‘USDA Organic Farming Systems Research Conference,’ which took place in March 2011 at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., has been launched on PMN. This open-access collection of research, reviews, and perspectives provides a diverse discussion around organic farming systems in the United States. Presentation topics vary from the agronomic and economic to the ecological and social. You can view the proceedings here:

5-11, Vineyard Field Day – Brainard, NE

Where: Fox Run Vineyards 124 North Cleveland Street, Brainard, Nebraska 68626
(About 43 miles (50 minutes) from Lincoln, NE) and Makovicka Winery, near Brainard, Nebraska
When: Saturday, May 11, 2013 - 9:30 a. m. to 3:00pm. Registration starts at 9 a.m.
Cost: $10.00 per person, includes lunch and hand-outs
Why should you attend: Exciting topics that you may have asked about or need to know answers to include Ground Covers (in-row and between-row), Mulches and alternative weed management strategies, Weed Identification and Control, Canopy Management, Vine Balance and Crop Estimation to name a few critical issues to be addressed by UNL Viticulture and Weed Management specialists. Christina Bavougian, PhD candidate will discuss her unique experiments employing crushed glass and distillers dried grains as mulches, in addition to her in-row and alleyway cover crop studies – Christina has some really interesting results! University of Nebraska Viticulture Program experts, Professor of Viticulture Paul Read and Viticulture Technician Steve Gamet will discuss canopy management, vine balance, late pruning and crop estimation and answer your other vineyard management questions, including disease and insect prevention and management.
Ever wondered what that weed was? Have you wanted to know how to control it and other weeds in the most effective and efficient manner? Answers to these and other weed management questions will be provided by UNL’s weed specialist, Lowell Sandell. Lowell will also conduct a weed survey in and adjacent to the vineyard, identify any mystery weeds that you may bring and provide insights and examples related to weed management strategies for your vineyard.
Steve and Diane Makovicka have invited attendees to visit their nearby winery, one of Nebraska’s newest, to see their specially designed tasting room and sample some of their wines
Of special note is the generosity of Fox Run Vineyards, both for providing a location for Christina’s PhD research studies and allowing us to hold this Field Day. We also appreciate the chance to observe their Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) enterprise. We appreciate their hospitality.
Sponsored by: UNL Viticulture Program: http://agronomy.unl.edu/viticulture
Contact Person: Diane Nolan dnolan2@UNL.EDU
Leesy: A tasting term noting the rich aromas and smells resulting from a wine which spends time resting on its lees.

5-11, Vineyard Canopy Management Workshop – Mechanicsburg, IL

What: Vineyard Canopy Management Workshop
When: 10 a.m. Saturday, May 11, 2013 Registration begins at 9:30 a.m.
Where: Lazy L Grape Ranch, Mechanicsburg, IL The Lazy L Grape Ranch, owned by Brad Lindquist, is located east of Springfield, just south of Mechanicsburg. From I-72, just east of Springfield, take the Mechanicsburg Exit (#114) into Mechanicsburg. Coming into Mechanicsburg, turn left (east) on to W. Main Street, then a right on to S. Church Street, which turns into Roby Road. Continue south past Darnell Road and turn left (east) onto Moomey Road. The vineyard will be on the right (south) and visible from the road.
Sponsored by: Illinois Grape Growers and Vintners Association (IGGVA), University of Illinois Extension, Southern Illinois University and Illinois Department of Agriculture.
Topics covered: Crop control and canopy management, early season pest control, fertilizer application and ground cover management.
Who: Brad Taylor, Southern Illinois University and Elizabeth Wahle, University of Illinois Extension, will demonstrate and discuss the major practices, including shoot thinning and positioning, cluster thinning and leaf removal--operations that growers should perform in a timely manner in order to reduce costs and increase revenues. Following lunch, participants will return to the vineyard to view and discuss cover crop research being conducted by Dr. Taylor.
Cost: $20.00 for individual IGGVA members or $30.00 per vineyard or non-IGGVA member. Registration is at the door and includes lunch. In case of inclement weather, the program will continue inside facilities at the vineyard.
Further details: contact Elizabeth Wahle at wahle@illinois.edu or 618-344-4230.
SWE logo

 The next Society of Wine Educators, Certified Specialist of Wine (CSW) exam held on the ISU campus in Ames, Iowa will be from 2-3 p.m. Monday, June 3rd, 2013. (33 days)

Complete information here: http://www.societyofwineeducators.org
Questions: Contact Michael L. White mlwhite@iastate.edu or 515-681-7286

Midwest Grape and Wine Industry Institute, Iowa State University

An Introduction to Wine Microorganisms: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
The goodThe badThe Ugly
When: June 11th, 2013 8 am - 4 pm
Workshop Description: Kenneth Fugelsang, retired professor of Enology from California State University-Fresno, will present several aspects of wine microbiology. Participants will gain hands on experience using microscopic examination and other classical techniques to identify common wine and spoilage microorganisms. They will also have the opportunity to evaluate the effects of spoilage organisms on finished wines.
Topics covered include:
 Microscope use and care
 Difference between wine microorganisms and spoilage microorganisms
 Techniques used in the detection of microorganisms
 Importance of sanitation
 Flavor defects from yeast and bacteria
 Microbial control
 Tasting wine flaws and faults from spoilage microorganisms
Cost: $95 per person for Iowa registrants
$115 per person for out-of-state registrants (Lunch is included)
Location: 2379 Food Science Building, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 8
Registration: Online @ http://goo.gl/Dgdml . Space is limited to 24 participants, must
be 21 or older.
Questions: Regarding workshop content - Stephanie Groves, sgroves@iastate.edu at 515-294-1555
General information: Tammi Martin, tkmartin@iastate.edu or 515-294-3308

FREE Grape & Wine Webinar Series - Michigan State University

These webinars are free, but you must register for them separately in advance, by 5:00PM EST on the day prior to each webinar.
4-17-13, 12:30 to 1:30 p.m. Central Standard Time
Early Season Disease Management – Dr. Annemiek Schilder
5-1-13, 12:30 to 1:30 p.m. CST
Understanding Michigan’s Tasting Room Visitors – Dr. Dan McCole
6-26-13 12:30 to 1:30 p.m. CST
Grape Berry Moth Management – Dr. Rufus Issaacs
Webinars are free, made possible by funding from Project GREEEN.
Registration is separate for each webinar. A web link and instructions will be sent to registrants prior to each event.
Further info: Paul Jenkins Grape & Wine Program
Michigan State University,East Lansing, Michigan

6-(9-14), 1st International Elderberry Symposium - MO

First International Symposium on ElderberryWhen: 6-(9-12), Sun. – Wed. Scientific Presentations
6-(13-14) Thurs.-Fri. Producer Program
Where: Scientific presentations will be head at
Stoney Creek Inn, 2601 S. Providence Rd
Columbia, MO 65203 ph: 573-442-6400
Producer Program will be held at Eridu Farms
19010 S. Mackie Lane, Hartsburg, MO 65039 ph: 573-657-1177
Questions: Andrew Thomas, Email: thomasal@missouri.edu ; Phone: 417-466-0065
Negociant: French word describing a wholesale merchant, blender, or shipper of wine.

Marketing Tidbits

1. What’s in a Winery’s Name, 4-23-13 – Wines & Vines Magazine:
2. Wine By The Glass Sales Rise As Millennials Look To Experiment, Diversify Repertoire,
4-24-13– Shaken News Dailey:
3. Top Social Media Strategies for Wine Marketing, 4-24-13 – Beverage Media Group:
4. The most important thing in the tasting room isn’t always the wine, 4-25-13 – Washington Wine Report:
5. The Future and Present of Wine Retailing, 4-25-13 – National Assn. of Wine Retailers:
6. How an Internet sales tax affects wine, 4-29-13 – Dr. Vino:

International Women’s Winemaker’s Wine Competition

Sonoma County, CA
Entry Deadline: 6-20-13
Judging: 7-(9-10)-13
Cost: $75 n paper, $65 Online

Notable Quotables

"As Americans drink more wine, France, ironically, is drinking more Coca-Cola — tripling its consumption in the past 20 years to 149 cans apiece per year"
From: Study reveals America’s favorite wine varieties, 4-23-13 – The Salt Lake Journal
"Research released yesterday (25 April) by Wine Intelligence, Vinexpo and The IWSR shows that 27% of wine consumers in China buy wine online, versus 18% in the UK and 15% in Germany. Incidentally, it seems the French have yet to conquer the art of wine web surfing, while US consumers are largely precluded from doing so by their country's three-tier distribution set-up"
From: Analyis – the E-Guide to selling wine in China, 4-25-13 – Just Drinks
"According to the TTB (Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau) the number of federal winery licenses in the 11 state Midwest Wine Press market area grew to 1,243 in 2013. This is a 10% increase from the number of winery licenses in 2012".
From: Midwest Winery Rankings for 2013, 4-24-13 – Midwest Wine Press
"always use Sans Serif type styles [those without the little 'feet' like Arial or Tahoma]. They are much easier to read and will improve your open rate significantly. Typestyles like 'Arial' or 'Tahoma' or 'Verdana' are easier to read and will likely get a better response."
From: Ron Cates of Constant Contact at the just completed License to Steal Conference

Videos of Interest

1. Aerial View of River View Vineyard & Winery, 3-20-13 – LaCrescent, MN, 2:06 min:
2. Wisconsin Winery Association’s YouTube Channel:

Show n Tell

Below: I stopped by the ISU Horticulture Research Station located north of Ames on Friday, 4-26-13 to check the bud break status of the many cultivars planted there. All of the buds were still dormant with no signs of bud swell. Here are just a few of the pictures I took that day: mlw
La Crescent vineLa Crescent vine
(Above-left) LaCresent on Vertical Shoot Positioned Wire
(Above-right) LaCrescent on Single High Wire
 Marechal Foch vineMissing Seyval row
(Above-left) Marechal Foch on 6 Cane Kniffin
(Above-right) Missing Seyval row. Too cold sensitive for Ames, IA area
 Marquette vineMarquette vine
(Above-left) Marquette on Single High Wire
(Above-right) Marquette on Vertical Shoot Positioned wire.

Neeto-Keeno WWW Stuff

1. Specialty Wine Retailers Association has changed their name to the National Wine Retailers Association and this is their new WWW site: http://nawr.org/
2. Wine Competitions.com: http://www.winecompetitions.com/
3. Washington State University Viticulture & Enology Extension Newsletter:

Articles of Interest

1. CA: Studies: 3 million annual Napa Valley visitors spend $1.4B, 4-25-12 – Wine Business Journal:
2. Heavy use of herbicide Roundup linked to health dangers-U.S. study, 4-25-13 – Reuters:
3. NY: Cornell’s NYS Ag Experiment Station to Receive $4.7 million, 4-26-13 – Cornell University:
4. Five of the Best Wine Apps, 4-26-13 – Brisbane Times:
5. ND: ND Grape Growers get funding, 4-29-13 – AgWeek:
6. The Influence of Bottle Color on Wine Quality When Exposed to Light and Varied Temperatures, 4-29-13 – theacademicwino:

Calendar of Events

5-11, Inaugural Wine Tourism Day http://www.winetourismday.org
5-11, Vineyard Field Day – Brainard, NE. Sponsored by UNL – Viticulture. Contact person: Diane Nolan dnolan2@UNL.EDU
5-(16-18), Winemaker Magazine Conference - Monterey, CA. Full Details & Registration: http://www.winemakermag.com/conference
6-1, Swine Festival on the DMACC campus, Ankeny, IA http://swinefestival.com/
6-4, Missouri Grape Growers Association viticulture field day. Details later here: http://www.missourigrapegrowers.org/
6-(1-8), Des Moines Wine Fest: http://www.winefestdesmoines.com/
6-(9-14), First International Elderberry Symposium at Columbia, MO. Details here: http://muconf.missouri.edu/elderberrysymposium/
6-11, Wine Microbiology Workshop, ISU Midwest Grape & Wine Industry Institute – Ames, IA Kenneth C. Fugelsang, Professor Emeritus – California State University, Fresno. http://www.extension.iastate.edu/wine/upcomingevents
6-(24-28), 64th American Society of Enology & Viticulture (ASEV) National Conference, Portola Hotel & Monterey Conference Center – Monterey, CA: http://asev.org/national-conference-2013/
7-13, ISU Extension Northern Grape Project Vineyard Field Day – Adel & Madrid, Iowa. Details later.
7-28, Minnesota Grape Growers Association Annual Picnic – Four Daughters Vineyard & Winery at Spring Valley, MN. http://mngrapegrowers.com/
7-31 to 8-2, 37th Society of Wine Educators Annual Conference, Renaissance Hotel at Sea World in Orlando, FL: http://www.societyofwineeducators.org/conference
8-16, 5th Annual International Cold Climate Wine Competition. Details here: http://mngrapegrowers.com/competition
8-(8-18), Iowa State Fair Wine Experience Exhibit. Volunteer announcement will be sent out in July. http://www.iowastatefair.org/
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Michael L. White - CCA, CPAg, CSW
ISU Extension Viticulture Specialist
909 East 2nd Ave. Suite E, Indianola, IA 50125-2892
ph: 515-961-6237, fax: 6017, cell: 515-681-7286
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Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. veteran. Inquiries can be directed to the Director of Equal Opportunity and Compliance, 3280 Beardshear Hall, (515) 294-7612.
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