#194 - March 26, 2012
Submitted by tkmartin on Wed, 04/04/2012 - 15:39
My phone an e-mail has been VERY busy. The majority of the questions have been in regard to our warm weather. Most mentioned that their bud break has occurred or is occurring approximately 15-18 days earlier than normal this season. I must admit I can’t recall ever seeing dog ticks, mushrooms popping and grasshoppers jumping this early before in Central Iowa.
In regard to delaying budbreak. Long Pruning sometimes referred to as Double Pruning is a concept (ie.. leaving 50% to 100% or more buds than needed) during your first pass through the vineyard. Leaving 2-3 times more buds may delay the budbreak of your count (basal) buds up to 2 weeks. Leaving 50% to 100% more buds than needed may delay bud break of your count buds a few days to a week. The warmer the weather the less delay you will see.
The idea is to come back and make a quick pruning pass through the vineyard at budbreak, leaving only the buds needed to produce a crop. Unfortunately this technique does not help a lot when we are this far ahead of our seasonal normal. Finding the time for a second pass through the vineyard is the typical argument against this technique. It is also difficult to balance your pruning based on last year’s cane growth when it has already been chopped off.
In regard to delaying bud break. There has been some good research showing that soybean oil and mineral oils sprayed onto the vines when dormant can delay bud break up to 10-20 days. The key word here is "DORMANT". It was too late to be recommending these sprays last week when all the calls were coming in. You can read more about this technique in this "Are we going to have an early budbreak" article from the Cornell University Finger Lakes Program here: http://www.pawinegrape.com/uploads/PDF%20files/Documents/Other%20Authors/Early%20Budbreak_frost.pdf
Who knows if or when we may get of a hard killing frost (28°F for 4 hours) after the shoots and leaves have emerged. The secret is to be prepared to do what you can if a hard freeze does occur. Steps a small vineyard operator could use in trying to deter freeze injury freezing could include:
1. Driving through your vineyard with your airblast sprayer to move the cold air out and warm air into the vineyard. Be sure to have some water in the sprayer so not to wear out the pump.
2. Use an airblast sprayer to spray a light water mist on the vines continually during the cold weather period.
3. Spraying KDL (Potassium Dextrolactate) at a rate of 1 gallon per acre through an airblast sprayer has been used effectively in orchards and vineyards to protect against cold injury. KDL is a product of Ago-K and is a foliar fertilizer. There is nothing on the label advocating frost protection. The increased potassium content within the plant cell walls tends to act as an antifreeze.) It seems that the key is to apply it to the plant at least 12 hours prior to the frost event and can give up to two days of protection. Even though the hard research documenting this effect was minimal (I did find one University of Tansmania reference) I think the science sounds logical and worth trying.
(Larry Shafer of Agro-K recommends spraying KDL 36-24 hours prior to the freeze event. KDL runs approximately $20 per gallon in 5 gallon pails. Per 3-26-12 e-mail correspondence. )
Other methods I did not cover could include:
- Helicopters can be used to force warm air down into a vineyard and cold air out but would be cost prohibitive for a small Midwest vineyard.
- Smudge pots or vineyard floor heaters tend to be expensive to operate and work best if a strong temperature inversion layer is prevalent above the vineyard.
- Wind machines - too expensive for a small vineyard
- Frost Dragons or Frost Guard system using a propane heater to blow warm air through the vineyard. Again, a little expensive for a small vineyard.
- Overhead irrigation continually spraying through the freezing period – few if any Midwest vineyards are set up for this.
Note: For practical purposes these frost protection measures may provide 3-4 °F of additional protection below freezing. Unfortunately upper Midwest hard spring freezes often get much
colder than this.
John Marshall of Great River Vineyards at Lake City, MN produced an excellent article "Frost Damage Protection for the Small Grower" that was reprinted in Midwest Wine Press back in January that can be read here: http://midwestwinepress.com/2012/01/19/frost-damage-protection-grape-grower/
"Understanding & Preventing Freeze Damage in Vineyards", a 108 page publication from the Institute for Continental Climate Viticulture & Enology (ICCVE) is another excellent resource on this subject: http://extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPub.aspx?P=WG1001
"Frost Protection in Vineyards" is an excellent 22 minute Online webinar narrated by Dr. Tom Zabadal of Michigan State University here:
(Above) 90 day mean temperature in degrees F map of U.S as of 3-24-12. Note our average mean temperatures are running 8°F higher this season. National Weather Service Climate Prediction Center: http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/tanal/temp_analyses.php
Anthracnose has become a serious early season disease for many upper Midwest grape growers. An application of liquid lime sulfur to the cordons and canes a week or two prior to budbreak has become a common preventative against early anthracnose infections. The secret is to apply the liquid lime sulfur prior to the new shoots coming out and becoming infected with the anthracnose spores that can be splashed onto them from the cordons and canes. Liquid lime sulfur also provides some control of phomopsis and powdery mildew.
Further information about this topic can be found in the 4-5-11 Wine Grower News #160 here: http://www.extension.iastate.edu/wine/growersnews/160-april-5-2011
Craig Tordsen, ISU Value Added Agriculture Specialist recently completed a 2011 report of the Iowa native Wine industry. A few of the key figures that emerged in this report included:
- 99 native Iowa wineries licensed by the State of Iowa
- 56.4% of native Iowa wine was sold at wholesale by the wineries
- 43.1% of native Iowa wine was sold at retail by the wineries
- 0.6% of native Iowa wine was sold through distributors
- 355,271 gallons were produced in 2011, up 25% over 2010
- 265,255 gallons were sold in 2011, up 15% over 2010
Iowan’s purchased 3,995,248 gallons of wine from wholesale and 265,255 gallons from native Iowa wineries for the year ending 12/31/2011 or 6.23 percent of the total sold. Iowa’s 2011 population is 3,062,309 and consumes about 1.39 gallons of wine per person. The US average is 2.54 gallons of wine per person.
Craig Tordsen’s complete report can be found here:
The U.S. Department of the Treasury Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) has approved the "Wisconsin Ledge" as an American Viticultural Area (AVA). The Wisconsin Ledge AVA designation was published in the Federal Registry on Thursday March 22nd. The rule will take effect 30 days later, so labels with the new Wisconsin Ledge AVA as an appellation of origin can be approved as of April 23, 2012.
This new AVA is 3,800 square miles in size and currently has 320 acres of vineyards. This AVA encompasses Door, Kewaunee, Manitowoc, Seboygan, Ozaukee, Washington, Dodge, Fond du Lac, Calumet, Brown and Outagamie counties.
Prior to the installation of the AVA system, wine appellations of origin in the United States were designated based on state or county boundaries. All of these appellations were grandfathered into federal law and may appear on wine labels as designated places of origin, but these appellations are distinct from AVAs. The first AVA was in Augusta, Missouri, in 1980. According to the TTB there were 200 AVA’s as of 11-28-11.
Setting up a vineyard pest management program is not easy. It takes several years of experience and study to become proficient in this art. Pest identification, sprayer calibration, Worker Protection Standard (WPS) requirements, pre-harvest intervals (PHI), re-entry intervals (REI), mode of action rotation, spray intervals, adjuvant use, mixing order and timing all come into play in developing a good pest management spray program.
Here is a list of some good resources that should come in handy:
1. 2012 Midwest Small Fruit Spray Guide PM 1375: https://store.extension.iastate.edu/ItemDetail.aspx?ProductID=4796
2. Midwest Small Fruit Pest Mgt. Handbook: http://ohioline.osu.edu/b861/index.html
3. North Central IPM Guide: http://www.ipmcenters.org/pmsp/pdf/NorthCentralGrapePMSP.pdf
4. Fungicide Resistance Action Committee: http://www.frac.info/frac/index.htm
5. Pesticide Labels and MSDS sheets: http://www.cdms.net/LabelsMsds/LMDefault.aspx
6. Compendium of Herbicide Adjuvants, Southern IL Univ.: http://www.herbicide-adjuvants.com/
7. Airblast Sprayer Calibration, Univ. of Kentucky: http://www.uky.edu/Ag/HLA/calibration.pdf
8. Small Hand Sprayer Calibration, ISU: http://www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/PM1271.pdf
9. NY Extension Pesticide Application Technology, Excellent! : http://web.entomology.cornell.edu/landers/pestapp/index.htm
10. Effective Vineyard Spraying by Dr. Andrew Landers, 2010- 262 pp. approx. $61: http://www.effectivespraying.com/
11. EPA - Worker Protection Standard (WPS): http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/health/worker.htm
12. ISU Worker Protection Standard training resources: http://www.extension.iastate.edu/pme/WorkerProtect.html
13. TracGrape Pesticide Records & Excel Software from Cornell Univ. $60 license fee. http://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/trac/about/about_grape.asp
Wollersheim Winery – Prairie du Sac, WI was named the 2012 San Diego International Wine Competition Winery of the Year.The 29th San Diego International Wine Competition was held on March 10-11, 2012.Complete results can be found here: http://www.sdiwc.com/index.htm
What: Grape Grafting Workshop
When: 6:pm to 8:00 p.m. Tuesday, March 27, 2012 Registration will start at 5:30 p.m.
Where: Schade Creek Vineyards & Winery, 1230 Warrior Lane, Waukee, IA 50263
Ph: 515-987-6695 http://www.schadecreek.com/
Who: Dr. Paul Domoto, ISU Extension Fruit Specialist will be demonstrating
grafting techniques that can be used in the vineyard.
Sponsored by: ISU Extension & Outreach and Schade Creek Vineyards & Winery
Cost: $10 each, pay at the door.
Pre-registration requested: by contacting Mike White at email@example.com or 515-681-7286.
Note: This workshop will be held rain or shine.
When: Thursday, Friday, Saturday - March 29, 30 & 31
Where: Holiday Inn Northwest
4800 Merle Hay Rd, Des Moines, IA 50322
Cost: $125 each for entire 3 days
Registration and Details: http://midwestaronia.org/conference-2012
When: 10:30 A.M. – 1 p.m. Monday, 3-31-12
Where: Univ. of WI Peninsular Research Station, 4312 Hwy 42, Sturgeon Bay, WI
Agenda: 10:30 AM Dormant Pruning and Vine Balance - Dean Volenberg, UW Extension
10:45 Vine Balance and Grape Quality – Dean Volenberg, UW Extension
11:00 Early Season Pest Management – Dean Volenberg, UW Extension
11:30 Vineyard Demonstration on Trellis Construction,
Pruning and Training: Non-Bearing to Mature Vines
Special Guest Appearance by Dick Weidman
1:00 P.M. Questions and Warm Up in Conference Room
Please bring your work gloves and your pruners to the program.
Questions: Dean Volenberg, 920-746-2260 or firstname.lastname@example.org
When: 9:30 a.m. Sat. March 31st, OR Sat. April 7th. (Your choice).
Registration begins at 9:30 a.m. Classroom instruction begins at 10:00 followed by vineyard demonstrations and opportunity to prune some vines.
Where: Great River Vineyard, 35680 Hwy 61, Lake City, MN.
Agenda: 1 hour classroom discussion
Training young vines for vertical shoot positioned and high wire trellis systems
Cane pruning vs. spur pruning
Cost: $25 each, $15 for each additional person in your group. Pay at the door.
Reservations required, call: 877-345-3531
Full Details: http://www.greatrivervineyard.com/
Note: A "Learn to Prune Grapevines" DVD is available on the Great River Vineyard Homepage for $30 (shipping and sales tax included) (price discounted $10).
When: 9:30 a.m. Saturday April 14, 2012
Where: Emporia High School, Emporia, KS
3302 W. 18th Emporia, KS 66801
Who: Dr. Paul Domoto, Iowa State University (left)
Agenda: Two hours of classroom with hands-on at Broken Spoke Vineyard in the afternoon. Techniques for bench grafting, cleft grafting and chip bud grafting will be covered.
Sponsored by: Kansas Grape Growers and Winemakers Assn.
Cost: $15 for KGGWA members and $30 for non-members
Pre-registration is requested by contacting: Terry Turner at email@example.com
was held on March 5-7, 2012. Over 800 wines were submitted. Judges awarded a total of 15 Double Gold, 73 Gold, 216 Silver, and 235 Bronze medals. Wollersheim Winery in Wisconsin did VERY, VERY well! Several other Midwest wineries in IA, IL, KS, MN, MO, NE, SD and WI also received awards.Check out all the results from this competition here:
"Analysis of the return on investment from public agricultural research and extension shows each dollar spent returns about $32 to society."
From: Ag Research Programs Hit By Expenses to Close ARS Labs. 3-15-12 - National Association of Wheat Growers: http://www.wheatworld.org/news-events/2012/03/ag-research-programs-hit-by-expenses-to-close-ars-labs/
"Every year, federal regulators review more than 100,000 proposed wine labels."
From: What’s in a wine label? Notes of bureaucracy, 3-23-12 – Miami Herald: http://www.miamiherald.com/2012/03/23/2710400/whats-in-a-wine-label-notes-of.html#storylink=cpy
1. "Impact’s exclusive survey of the industry’s top 10 distributors—accounting for 63% of the market—projects their combined revenue growth at nearly 7% this year, essentially matching last year’s performance."
From: U.S. Spirits And Wine Distributors On Track For Significant Gains In 2012, Impact Survey Shows, 3-19-12 Shaken News Daily
2. "Adults in the Midwest buy wine least frequently — 13 percent buy 4 or more bottles per month compared to 24 percent of those in the South, 25 percent of those in the East and 29 percent of those in the West who purchase that amount; and, Adults in the West seem to buy the most amount of wine, with 10 percent reporting purchasing 11 or more bottles per month.
From: Study: 62 of Americans buy wine, 3-22-12 – The Gourmet Retailer
Thought I would share.
The Chinese have it right. Another way to bring pork and wine together.
1. Mystery Wine from the Titantic:
1. Treatment of Grape Marc Using Earthworms Makes Winery Wastes More Suitable for Crop Fertilizer, 3-15-12 – the Academic Wino: http://www.academicwino.com/2012/03/treatment-of-grape-marc-for.html
2. IL: New Sycamore Winery comes to fruition, 3-17-12, The Daily Chronical – Dekalb, IL: http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_action=doc&p_docid=13D93601B4CDBEF8&p_docnum=1
3. WI: Wollershiem wins winery of the year, 3-19-12 – Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: http://www.jsonline.com/business/wollersheim-wins-winery-of-the-year-mk4ktic-143420066.html
4. World wine consumption increases in 2011, 3-22-12 - Agence France Presse (AFP):
5. Pruning vs. Pre-pruning, 3-22-12 – Unfiltered the Official Napa Valley Vintners Log: http://napavintners.blogspot.com/2012/03/pruning-vs-pre-pruning.html
6. MO: Old Rock Hill church could be rebuilt at a winery, official says, 3-22-12 – STLToday.com
1. Funny voicemail from retirement home neighbor, 3-13-12 – YouTube, 1:23 min.:
2. Humorous video of herd dog rounding up men to Guinness pub, 2:35 min.:
3-27, 6-8 p.m. Grape Grafting Workshop at Schade Creek Vineyards & Winery. Contact: Mike White at firstname.lastname@example.org or 515-681-7286.
3-29, 9 a.m. to 2:45 p.m. Wisconsin Grape Growers Association Vineyard School – Wollershiem Winery, Prairie du Sac, WI. Details: 920-478-3852
3-(29-31), 2nd Annual Midwest Aronia Berry Association Annual Meeting, Holiday Inn at 4800 Merle Hay Road in Des Moines, Iowa.
3-31, Pruning, Trellis Construction & Pest Management Workshop at the Univ. of WI Peninsular Research Station. Contact: Dean Volenberg, 920-746-2260 or email@example.com
3-31 or 4-7, Learn How to Prune Grape Vines workshop at Great River Vineyards in Lake City, MN. Full details here: http://www.greatrivervineyard.com
4-14, Grape Grafting Clinic – Emporia High School, Emporia Kansas. Contact Terry Turner at firstname.lastname@example.org
4-(17-19), License to Steal at the Lodge at Geneva, Ohio. Details here: http://nationalwinemarketing.com/
5-28 thru 6-2, French/Italian Mediterranean chartered wine cruise, Washington State Viticulture & Enology Program. Pricing starts at $2,450 per person: http://cahnrsalumni.wsu.edu/cruise/
6-(1-2), WineMaker Magazine Annual Conference, Ithaca, NY. Details: http://www.winemakermag.com/conference
6-(7-10), 6th Annual Conference of the American Association of Wine Economists (AAWE), Princeton, New Jersey. Hosted by Princeton University and Rutgers University. Details will be posted at www.wine-economics.org .
6-(8-10), Kothe Distilling Technologies Distillation workshop - Chicago, IL. Cost: $799 each, max of 30 participants
6-(18-22), 63rd American Society for Enology & Viticulture (ASEV) National Conference, Portland Marriott Downtown Waterfront – Portland, OR: http://asev.org/national-conference-2012/
7-(15-19), 37th American Society of Enology ASEV-Eastern Section (ASEV-ES) Annual Conference - Traverse City, MI: http://www.asev-es.org/
9-8, UMN (Tentative) Annual Horticulture Research Center Vineyard & Winery open house, Excelsior, MN. Details later.
Past issues archived as html and/or pdf here:
Total Circulation of 1,450+
recipients in AZ, CA, CO, FL, OH, IA, IN, IL, KS, KY, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NM, NV, NY, OK, OR, PA, SD, VA, VT, WA, WA DC, WI, Australia, Canada, Israel, Norway, Pakistan & Turkey
Michael L. White,
ISU Extension Viticulture Specialist
909 East 2nd Ave. Suite E, Indianola, IA 50125-2892
ph: 515-961-6237, fax: 6017, cell: 515-681-7286
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