Diagnosis of Poultry Diseases

Name:            
Darrell W. Trampel, DVM, PhD, Extension Poultry Veterinarian and Poultry Diagnostician; Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine

Fiscal Year:  
2011

Supports Plan of Work Number: 
180 – Other ANR Programs

Title of Success Story:         
Diagnosis of Poultry Diseases

Situation:       
Iowa is the No. 1 egg producing state in America with over 60 million laying hens.  The egg industry continues to grow in this state and Hy-Line International is the world’s largest source of genetics for egg-type chickens.   Iowa produces approximately 8.0 million turkeys per year.  A significant broiler industry is centered around Agri-Star in Postville, IA which is a kosher processing plant.  Iowa has the one of the nation’s largest producer of quail eggs and chicks and this country’s largest producer of Hungarian partridge.

A certain degree of mortality is associated with commercial production of poultry.  For example, livability of turkeys between placement in the brooder house as poults and marketing at 18 weeks is approximately 90%.  In addition to diseases that cause mortality, other subclinical disease conditions exist that do not kill the birds but reduce the rate of gain and feed efficiency of a flock.

Objective:     
A major part of the job responsibilities of the ISU extension poultry veterinarian is to provide diagnostic assistance to Iowa’s commercial poultry producers, gamebird producers, and owners of small-scale or hobby flocks.  In addition to serving as the poultry diagnostician in the ISU Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Dr. Trampel serves as the co-oordinator of two state-wide poultry disease surveillance programs: a) Avian Influenza in turkey and chicken flocks and b) Salmonella enteritidis monitoring of commercial egg-type chicken flocks.          

Activities/Output:  The poultry diagnostic cases from January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2010 are listed below.

Test Report Name

 

No. Access-ions

 

Total              tests

 

Avian influenza AGID - 1                         

 

992

16137

 

Avian influenza AGID - EY                        

 

124

1779

 

Avian influenza ELISA                            

 

16

429

 

Bacterial ID Extended                            

 

 9

10

 

Bacterial ID Short                               

 

67

121

 

Culture Saved                                         

 

3

3

 

Culture Summary                                  

 

7

7

 

E. coli K99 LA Typing                                     

 

1

2

 

Egg Culture -  Negative                          

 

2

54

 

Enrichments                                      

 

5

5

 

Fecal Flotation

 

2

4

 

Hematoxylin and Eosin Slides                     

 

160

881

 

Identification System                            

 

18

22

 

Necropsy (juvenile - adult)                      

 

96

96

 

Necropsy (neonate - fetus)                       

 

55

55

 

PCR - Avian influenza virus                      

 

7

69

 

PCR - based detection                            

 

1

1

 

Poultry - Salmonella Enviromental Positive       

 

7

52

 

Poultry - Salmonella Enviromental Suspicious     

 

4

19

 

Poultry - Salmonella Environmental Negative      

 

206

955

 

Poultry - Salmonella Environmental Positive      

 

265

1720

 

Poultry - Salmonella Environmental Suspicious    

 

139

387

 

Poultry Salmonella-Culture Confirmation

 

161

2533

 

Poultry Salmonella Culture Screen

 

503

5897

 

Poultry Susceptibility                           

 

64

95

 

Pullorum-typhoid AGG                             

 

1

1

 

Routine Culture                                  

 

165

376

 

Salmonella Id                                    

 

32

35

 

Salmonella Identification (NVSL FDA)                 

 

103

107

 

Salmonella Identification (NVSL)                 

 

166

431

 

Serogrouping Lancefield & Salmonella             

 

1

2

 

Slant Request

 

2

2

 

Tetra enrichment                                 

 

60

155

 

Type A Rotavirus antigen-capture ELISA           

 

9

9

 

Virus Isolation – Avian Influenza Virus

 

93

98

 

Total           

 

5

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iowa State University’s  Laboratory Information Management System  indicates that for 2010,  156 cases involved necropsy, and 159 cases involved histopathology, and 249 cases involved either necropsy or histopathology.  Dr. Trampel served as coordinator for 266 cases. 

Cases for avian species for which necropsy, histopathology, or both were performed and a written report was prepared in 2010. 

            Egg-type Chickens     (Layers)                     153
            Meat-type Chickens (Broilers)                        14
            Turkeys                                                             9
            Pigeons                                                             1
            Quail                                                                  3
            Guinea fowl                                                        3
            Partridge                                                          14
            Pheasants                                                         3
            Total                                                               200

 

Impact/Outcomes: 
This work provides vital support for Iowa’s poultry and gamebird industries in general as well as for specific companies, such as Hy-Line North America and Hy-Line International.  Poultry producers receive individual attention and the most rapid diagnoses that science will allow.  A rapid diagnosis permits early intervention via vaccination, antibiotic therapy, or management changes which greatly reduce the morbidity and mortality in affected flocks.  In addition to protecting bird health, monitoring programs for avian influenza and Salmonella enteritidis are potential zoonotic diseases and ongoing surveillance programs are important for protecting public health.

CONTACT
Dr. Darrell W. Trampel
Building 1, VMRI,
1802 Elwood Drive
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa     50011-1240
(515) 294-0710
dtrampel@iastate.edu

Page last updated: June 19, 2011
Page maintained by Julie Honeick, jhoneick@iastate.edu