Diagnosis of Poultry Diseases

Darrell W. Trampel, Faculty, Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine

Situation:

Iowa is the No. 1 egg producing state in America with over 57 million laying hens.  The egg industry continues to grow in this state and Hy-Line International is the world’s largest source of genetics for egg-type chickens.   Iowa produces approximately 8.0 million turkeys per year.  A significant broiler industry is centered around Agri-Processors in Postville, IA which is a kosher processing plant.  Iowa has the one of the nation’s largest producer of quail eggs and chicks and this country’s largest producer of Hungarian partridge.

A certain degree of mortality is associated with commercial production of poultry.  For example, livability of turkeys between placement in the brooder house as poults and marketing at 18 weeks is approximately 90%.  In addition to diseases that cause mortality, other subclinical disease conditions exist that do not kill the birds but reduce the rate of gain and feed efficiency of a flock.

Objective:      

A major part of the job responsibilities of the ISU extension poultry veterinarian is to provide diagnostic assistance to Iowa’s large commercial egg and turkey and broiler producers, gamebird producers, and owners of small-scale or hobby flocks.  In addition, Dr. Trampel serves as the co-coordinator of two state-wide poultry disease surveillance programs: a) Avian Influenza in turkey and egg-type chicken flocks and b) Salmonella enteritidis monitoring of commercial egg-type chicken flocks. 

Activities/Output: 

The poultry diagnostic cases from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2008 are listed below.

                                                                        Cost/   Number          Total   Total
                                                                        Test     Accessions      Tests   Cost

Avian influenza AGID - 1                         

$2.00

1084

19805

$39,610.00

Avian influenza AGID - EY                        

$2.50

145

1991

$4,977.50

Avian influenza ELISA                            

$1.00

41

801

$801.00

Avian Pneumovirus ELISA                           

$1.00

25

318

$318.00

Avian Pneumovirus IFA (NVSL)                     

$0.00

4

4

$0.00

Bacterial ID Extended                            

$5.00

12

19

$95.00

Bacterial ID Short                               

$3.00

68

137

$411.00

Chlamydia agELISA                                

$12.00

1

1

$12.00

Comments                                         

$0.00

10

10

$0.00

Copper in Feed or Tissue                         

$22.00

1

1

$22.00

Culture Saved                                    

$3.00

1

1

$3.00

Culture Summary                                  

$0.00

3

3

$0.00

Egg Culture -  Negative                          

$15.00

7

155

$2,325.00

Ergopeptine Panel                                

$65.00

1

2

$130.00

Food Animal Susceptibility                       

$16.50

1

1

$16.50

Hematoxylin and Eosin Slides                     

$4.50

175

894

$4,023.00

Identification System                            

$7.00

3

3

$21.00

Mycotoxin Panel                                  

$75.00

1

2

$150.00

Necropsy (juvenile - adult)                      

$10.00

107

107

$1,070.00

Necropsy (neonate - fetus)                       

$5.00

45

46

$230.00

Past multocida somatic typing (NADC)             

$18.00

2

2

$36.00

PCR - Avian influenza virus                       

$35.00

13

16

$560.00

PCR - based detection                            

$35.00

1

1

$35.00

Poultry - Salmonella Enviromental Negative       

$9.00

238

910

$8,190.00

Poultry - Salmonella Enviromental Positive       

$29.00

224

1170

$33,930.00

Poultry - Salmonella Enviromental Suspicious     

$16.00

205

634

$10,144.00

Poultry Susceptibility                           

$16.50

61

75

$1,237.50

Pullorum-typhoid AGG                             

$2.00

1

30

$60.00

Routine Culture                                   

$1.50

81

233

$349.50

Routine Culture                                  

$12.00

89

90

$1,080.00

Salmonella Id                                    

$10.00

11

11

$110.00

Salmonella Identification (NVSL)                 

$0.00

133

200

$0.00

Special Stains - Acid Fast                       

$7.00

1

1

$7.00

Special Stains - Fungus (GMS)                    

$7.00

1

1

$7.00

Special Stains - Gram (Brown & Hopps)            

$7.00

1

1

$7.00

Tetra enrichment                                  

$3.00

70

132

$396.00

Type A Rotavirus antigen-capture ELISA           

$6.25

4

4

$25.00

$110,389.00

152 cases involved necropsy, and 174 cases involved histopathology.

 

2.         Avian species for which necropsy, histopathology, or both were performed and a written report was prepared. 

Egg-type Chickens      (Layers)
155
Meat-type Chickens (Broilers)
10
Turkeys   
22
Pigeons
26
Quail  
2
Guinea fowl 
1
Partridge 
5
Lesser Yellow Leg 
1
Psittacine
1
Total 
223

 

Impact/Outcomes: 

This work provides vital support for Iowa’s egg, turkey, broiler, and gamebird industries in general as well as for specific companies, such as Hy-Line North America and Hy-Line International.  Poultry producers receive individual attention and the most rapid diagnostic results that science will allow.  A rapid diagnosis permits early intervention via vaccination, antibiotic therapy, or management changes which greatly reduce the morbidity and mortality in affected flocks.  In addition to protecting bird health, high pathogenicity avian influenza and Salmonella enteritidis are zoonotic diseases so ongoing surveillance programs are important for protecting public health.

2009

180 – Other ANR Programs

Page last updated: August 10, 2009
Page maintained by Linda Schultz, lschultz@iastate.edu