June 13, 2008
WET WEATHER WOES
This continues to be a challenging year. Some excellent crop-related resources are at http://www.extension.iastate.edu/DisasterRecovery/cropconcerns.htm. There are also links in the left-hand navigation bar that will provide insights into dealing with non-crop flood and storm issues.
The continuous thunderstorms have not only delayed planting this spring, but may now result in having to change cropping plans or even abandon planting a crop. Most of the corn has been planted, but many farmers do have a field or two left to plant. Although decent yields can be obtained with corn planted as late as June 10-16, the risk and yield variability increases substantially with corn planted in mid June. On average the yield potential of corn planted June 10 – 16 is about 68% of what the corn could have yielded if it had been planted in early May, and the yield potential of corn planted June 24 – 28 is 52% of what it could have yielded if planted in early May. If planting is delayed beyond June 10-15, it would be best to switch to soybeans as long as any applied herbicides will allow it. If any atrazine has been applied, soybeans should not be planted. Even though soybeans often can tolerate some atrazine, it is not legal to plant soybeans into soil with atrazine and would be very risky. Mike Owen has an article regarding rotational intervals for planting soybeans after corn herbicides in the ICM News at http://www.extension.iastate.edu/CropNews/2008/0531MikeOwen2.htm.
Because of the poor planting and growing conditions, there are corn fields that could benefit from re-planting, but if the rains continue, this becomes less of an option. It would now take corn stands of less than 12,000 plants per acre to justify re-planting. It would now be best to use very early corn hybrids (more than 10 days earlier than full season), if you can find the seed. The Corn Planting Guide can help in making decisions: http://www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/PM1885.pdf, and the most relevant table from this publication was in the May 19, 2008 Crop Update. Lori Abendroth and Roger Elmore have a great article on the subject as well as some decision tools at http://www.agronext.iastate.edu/corn/production/management/planting/lose.html.
Soybeans do respond more to narrow rows the later that planting is
delayed, so using a drill or planting in 15” rows would be preferable to the
30” rows if that is an option. Seeding rates do not need to be increased with
late planting. Good soybean yields can be obtained with mid-June planting,
especially in southern
Prevented planting meetings are occurring in many places. A document that goes into the details is available at http://www.extension.iastate.edu/agdm/crops/pdf/a1-57.pdf; this document will be useful to study before attending a crop insurance-related meeting or as a review after a crop insurance-related meeting. In short, from June 1st through June 25th the reduction in insurance is 1% per day for corn. The same is true for soybeans from June 16th to July 10. Prevented planting can be declared for corn on or after June 1 and for soybeans on or after June 16. Prevented planting and crops planted after the late planting period ends (June 25 for corn and July 10 for soybeans) are at 60% of the original guarantee for timely planted acres. If an election was made when the policy was written to change the 60% to 65% or 70% then that number would prevail. Note that Prevented Planting acres must have a cover crop planted; it is my understanding that the cover crop will not be allowed to be harvested, so oats would probably be the best cover crop. I have heard a couple of people state that they thought grazing of Prevented Planting acres after November 1 might be a possibility.
William Edwards, Iowa State University Extension Economist, created an excellent Excel spreadsheet that can help producers see the financial impact of planting / re-planting verses declaring prevented planting; the spreadsheet is at http://www.extension.iastate.edu/agdm/crops/xls/a1-57delayedplantingevaluator.xls.
With the excess rain we have likely experienced nitrogen losses in many fields through leaching or denitrification. It’s not too late to be pulling soil samples to test for nitrate. The cool weather this spring would have delayed the nitrification of ammonium to nitrate, which will likely be occurring now at a much more rapid rate with these warmer temperatures. Soil nitrate samples should be pulled to a one foot depth when the corn is 6-12” tall. A minimum of 16 cores should be pulled per sample (24 if there are zones of high N concentration from anhydrous or manure applications). With the excess rain it is likely that some nitrate has leached below the one foot depth, but may still be available for the corn. Because of this it is recommended to reduce the critical nitrate level from 25 ppm to 20-22 ppm. To calculate nitrogen fertilizer needs you subtract the nitrate result from the lab from the critical value and multiply by 8. On soybean ground without manure, if the test reads 15 ppm and 20 ppm is the critical value chosen, the recommended nitrogen rate would be 40 lb/A [(20-15)X8]. Some results have been on the low side this spring, which may be due to ammonium not being mineralized yet and/or nitrate being lost. For more information on how to pull soil samples for the late spring soil nitrate test see http://www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/PM1714.pdf.
The cool wet weather has increased problems with damping off from pythium and other seedling diseases. Hopefully the warmer weather we are seeing now will help to reduce these problems.
Continue scouting for cutworms
There have been fields sprayed for cutworms in the area. Continue scouting until the corn is at V5 (five leaf collars visible).
Asian Soybean Rust
Some good news is that according to X.B. Yang’s model, there is
little chance of any rust spores reaching
FOR YOUR CALENDAR
SPRING FIELD DAY & SPECIAL SESSION FOR CCAs
Crop Advisors can obtain 5 hours of credit (including 2 hours of soil and
water) by attending a special session in the morning followed by a controlled
drainage field day and the afternoon field tour at the ISU SE Iowa Research
& Demonstration Farm near Crawfordsville on June 26. There is a $50 fee
for credit ($70 after June 24). You can pay at the door (check or cash), but
please call the
The controlled drainage field day and afternoon tour are free to the public (if not obtaining credit). The lunch at noon is courtesy of Qualisoy.
8:30 a.m. Registration - $50 Fee ($70 after June 24) – Includes Lunch
9:00 a.m. Special Session for Certified Crop Advisors (0.5 hour pest management, 1.0 hour crop production)
· Corn Herbicide Management & Mismanagement - Jim Fawcett, ISU Extension Field Agronomist
· Corn Yields – How High Can They Go? - Kendall Lamkey, ISU Agronomy Department Head & Corn Breeder
10:30 a.m. Controlled Drainage Field Day (1.5 hours soil & water)
· Tour of soil drainage research on the farm - Matt Helmers & Greg Brenneman, ISU Extension Ag Engineers
Noon – Lunch – Qualisoy Presentation by Dennis Byron, Pioneer Hybrids
1:00 p.m. – 3:00 p.m. Spring Field Day (0.5 hour pest management, 0.5 hour soil & water, 1.0 hour crop production)
· Crop Season Review & Current Crop Concerns - Kevin Van Dee, Farm Superintendent, & Mark Carlton, ISU Extension Field Agronomist
· Food vs. Fuel vs. Feed – Kendall Lamkey
· New Corn Herbicides – Jim Fawcett
· Does Tiling Pay? – Matt Helmers
If you have any questions, please feel free to contact the Iowa State University Extension Office.
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